Hope is sustained despite changing circumstances. She is highly sought as a methodological consultant to researchers and students from a variety of specialties. From this perspective, coping is best viewed as change over time that is highly variable in relation to biographical and sociological influences. The patients and the family members were asked to recall the previous month and then discuss the most important problem or challenge with which they had to deal, the degree of distress created by that problem within the family, and their satisfaction with the management of that concern. The desired outcome . Illness Theory #1: Every illness has a cause. It is interesting to note that this simple theory encompasses virtually all of the theories of illness, from the ‘germ theory’, to all of the ‘personalistic’ and ‘naturalistic’ theories. Although both quantitative and qualitative measures were used in data collection for the larger study, this theory was derived through analysis of the qualitative data. Her active service to the university, School of Nursing, Department of Physiological Nursing, and to numerous professional and public organizations and journal review boards augments her outstanding record of service to the profession of nursing. In addition, she has authored or coauthored several books (Strauss, Fagerhaugh, Suczek, & Wiener, 1997; Wiener, 1981, 2000; Wiener & Strauss, 1997; Wiener & Wysmans, 1990). These strategies were highly dynamic and responsive and occurred in varied combinations and configurations across the trajectory of illness for different players in the organization. Her continued excellence and significant contributions to oncology nursing are evidenced by her having been awarded the Oncology Nursing Society/Schering Excellence in Research Award (1993, 1996), the Best Original Research Paper in Cancer Nursing (1994, 1996), the Oncology Nursing Society Bristol-Myers Distinguished Researcher Career Award (1997), and the Oncology Nursing Society/Chiron Excellence of Scholarship and Consistency of Contribution to the Oncology Nursing Literature Career Award (2000). The Theory of Illness Trajectory was expanded through a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected during a prospective longitudinal study that examined family coping and self-care during 6 months of chemotherapy treatment. The purpose of the middle range theory of Self-Care of Chronic Illness was to capture a more holistic view of patients those with varied or multiple chronic conditions. The theory has not addressed the experience of living with continual, constant uncertainty in either a chronic illness or in an illness with a treatable acute phase and possible eventual recurrence. © 2020 Stanford School of Medicine | Terms of Use | Maternal role attainment becoming a mother. A major contribution of this work was the delineation of types of uncertainty abatement work (Table 30-2). Dodd worked as an instructor in nursing at University of Washington following graduation with her master’s degree. Her research focuses on organization in healthcare institutions, chronic illness, and health policy. Coping is often described as a compendium of strategies used to manage the disruption, attempts to isolate specific responses to one event that is lived within the complexity of life context, or assigned value labels (e.g., good or bad) to the responsive behaviors that are described collectively as coping. Her intense collaborative relationship with the late Anselm Strauss (co-originator of grounded theory methods) and prolific experience in grounded theory methods are evidenced by her invited presentations at the Celebration of the Life and Work of Anselm Strauss at UCSF in 1996 and at a conference entitled Anselm Strauss, a Theoretician: The Impact of His Thinking on German and European Social Sciences in Magdeburg, Germany, in 1999. There are several theories and models that support the practice of health promotion and disease prevention. This interplay among the types of work creates a tension that is marked by shifts in the dominance of types of work across the trajectory. The UCSF School of Nursing Annual Publication, The Science of Caring, 13(1), 7. Wiener is an adjunct professor and research sociologist in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the School of Nursing at UCSF. When considering the authors’ use of adapted grounded theory methods to analyze preexisting empirical evidence, several insights may be useful to support the integrity of this work. Personalistic causes are associated with social punishment or retribution … As theoretical insights are identified, sampling and the focus of subsequent data collection theoretically are driven to flesh out emergent concepts, dimensions, variations, and negative cases. Studies in Hawaii and other islands have suggested that a return to traditional diets, focused on staples such as taro, breadfruit, and sweet potato, could help lower serum cholesterol, blood sugar levels and other obesity related conditions. This includes the loss of social structures, lands and ways of life, as well as the effects of racism and discrimination. Wiener received her master’s degree in sociology from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in 1975. Theory of Illness Trajectory . The domains of illness-related uncertainty vary in dominance across the illness trajectory (Table 30-1) through a dynamic flow of perceptions of self and interactions with others. Dodd’s research was designed to test self-care interventions (PRO-SELF Program) to manage the side effects of cancer treatment (mucositis) and symptoms of cancer (fatigue, pain). She is the faculty member on record for several graduate courses and carries a significant advising load in the master’s, doctoral, and postdoctoral programs at UCSF. Her research trajectory has advanced impeccably as she progressively utilized both descriptive studies and intervention studies employing randomized clinical trial methodologies to extend an understanding of complex phenomena in cancer care. These activities were enacted to lessen the impact of the varied states of uncertainty induced by undergoing cancer chemotherapy. This network of players is called the total organization. Within this sociological framework, Wiener and Dodd address serious concerns regarding conceptual overattribution of the role of uncertainty in the framework of understanding responses to living with the disruptions of illness (Wiener & Dodd, 1993). This disruption permeates the interdependent elements of biography: identity, temporality, and body. Coping is often described as a compendium of strategies used to manage the disruption, attempts to isolate specific responses to one event that is lived within the complexity of life context, or assigned value labels (e.g., good or bad) to the responsive behaviors that are described collectively as coping. When identifying a theory or model to guide health promotion or disease prevention programs, it is important … But the sheer size of the data set does not tell the whole story. Although coping with illness has been of interest to social scientists and nursing scholars for decades, Weiner and Dodd clearly explicate that formerly implicit theoretical assumptions have limited the utility of this body of work (Wiener & Dodd, 1993, 2000). In addition, she has authored or coauthored several books (Strauss, Fagerhaugh, Suczek, & Wiener, 1997; Marylin J. Dodd was born in 1946 in Vancouver, Canada. Then she completed a study examining the quality management and redesign efforts in hospitals and the interplay between agencies and hospitals around the issue of accountability (Wiener, 2000). Supported by Despite the breadth and volume of these activities, Dodd is an active teacher and mentor. The Theory of Illness Trajectory * addresses these theoretical pitfalls by framing this phenomenon within a sociological perspective of a trajectory that emphasizes the experience of disruption related to illness within the changing contexts of interactional and sociological processes that ultimately influence the person’s response to such disruption. Oberst pointed out that given this volume of data, some semblance of theoretical sampling (within the full data set) would likely be permitted by the researchers (Oberst, 1993). Sociological Theories of Health and Illness Functionalist View of Health and Illness Functionalism considers how health and illness impact social order, as well as the roles of patients and health care providers. Dodd’s research was designed to test self-care interventions (PRO-SELF Program) to manage the side effects of cancer treatment (mucositis) and symptoms of cancer (fatigue, pain).  Duration: how long This network of players is called the, A major contribution of this work was the delineation of types of uncertainty abatement work (Table 30-2). Being ill creates a disruption in normal life. An old adage tells us that nothing in life is certain, except death and taxes. Meticulous attention was paid to consistency in data collection: family members were consistent and present for each interview, the interview guide was structured, and the same nurse-interviewer conducted each data collection point for a given family. Interactions with others are a major influence on the establishment of the conception of self. Identity, temporality, and body are key elements in the biographical context, as follows: Dimensions of the uncertainty, management processes, and consequences were further explicated to reveal the internal consistency of the theoretical perspective of illness trajectory. Among these honors, she was recognized as a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing (1986). Marylin J. Dodd 1946-present Photo credit: Craig Carlson. Consequently, rates of cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes are all increasing (National Institutes of Health & National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 2000). This network of players is called the total organization. The ill person (or patient) is the central worker; however, all work takes place within and is influenced by the total organization. Changes related to illness and treatment centered in one’s ability to perform usual activities, involving appearance, physiological functions, and response to treatment. The self of the past is viewed differently (e.g., the way it used to be). Healing traditions addressed all three and healing occurred in a very holistic way. Biographical work: the exchange of information, emotional expressions, and the division of tasks through interactions within the total organization, 4. In 2003, she was awarded the Sharon A. Lamb Endowed Chair in Symptom Management at the School of Nursing, UCSF. During her tenure there, Dodd has advanced to the rank of full professor, serving as the director for the Center for Symptom Management at UCSF. Her intense collaborative relationship with the late Anselm Strauss (co-originator of grounded theory methods) and prolific experience in grounded theory methods are evidenced by her invited presentations at the Celebration of the Life and Work of Anselm Strauss at UCSF in 1996 and at a conference entitled. Interactions with others are a major influence on the establishment of the conception of self. Each patient had been diagnosed with cancer (including breast, lung, colorectal, gynecological, or lymphoma) and was in the process of receiving chemotherapy for initial disease treatment or for recurrence. Lydia E. Hall. Covering up She has produced a steady stream of research and theory articles since the mid-1970s. As the body changes through the course of illness and treatment, the capacity to perform certain types of work and, ultimately, one’s identity are transformed. Today’s medicine is failing us with temporary fixes to complex long-term problems—from numerous … Theories and models are used in program planning to understand and explain health behavior and to guide the identification, development, and implementation of interventions. Thus, although the concept of uncertainty provides a useful theoretical lens for understanding the illness trajectory, it cannot be theoretically positioned so as to overshadow conceptually the dynamic context of living with chronic illness. Selective sharing with individuals deemed to be positive supporters As the data for the larger study were analyzed, it became apparent to Dodd (principal investigator) that the qualitative interview data held significant insights that could further inform the study. THEORETICAL SOURCES . Taken-for-granted expectations regarding the flow of life events are disrupted Theory Health is a revolutionary virtual functional medicine practice providing a holistic and scientific approach to health. The sociology of health and illness requires a global approach of analysis because the influence of societal factors varies throughout the world. Carolyn L. Wiener  Efficacy and risks of treatment During her tenure there, Dodd has advanced to the rank of full professor, serving as the director for the Center for Symptom Management at UCSF. This terrain theory of health is the exact opposite of the germ theory of health by Pasteur. Pacing Being ill creates a disruption in normal life. Loss of temporal predictability prompts concerns surrounding: Ambiguity in reading body signs Concerns surrounding: Using terminology related to illness and treatment, Balancing expertise with super-medicalization, Comparing self with persons who are in worse condition to reassure self that it is not as bad as it could be, Looking back to reinterpret emergent symptoms and interactions with others in the organization, Looking toward the future to achieve desired activities, Masking signs of illness or related emotions, Bucking up to avoid stigma or to protect others, Establishing a place where, or people with whom, true emotions and feelings could be expressed in a supportive atmosphere, Selective sharing with individuals deemed to be positive supporters, Asserting the right to determine the course of treatment. S record in research dissemination is equally illustrious in linear phases or stages organized! 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