There are 8 notes in alphabetical order consisting of 5 tones and 2 semitones - the 8th note is the same as the first note, but is one octave higher. That purpose is executed in three parts: 1. This step shows the second inversion of the A major 6th. Start studying Understanding Music- Figured Bass and Chromatic Chords. a possible increase or decrease in the note pitch from the major scale notes in step 4. > One half-tone / semitone down from the major interval is the minor interval. the 3rd is a major, minor etc. Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. For each interval, ascending or descending, a popular song is given that contains it prominently. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen. Written as a minor 6th, D-Bb is an interval found within the key of Bb major (and other keys). To identify the note interval numbers for this major scale, just assign each note position from the previous step, with numbers ascending from 1 to 8. How many semitones are in a major 3rd? Or a 1 3 5 7 chord adds the extra 7th note, ie. Remember that an octave is made up of 12 semitones? The figured bass symbols for this chord in root position are 6/4/2, so the chord is said to be in six-four-two position. So the second note of the 2nd inversion - note F# is now the note with the lowest pitch for the 3rd inversion. Both major and minor chord qualities are built on the triad chord in the same key plus one added note - the 6th note of the major scale in the previous step. the tonic of the major scale. To count up a Whole tone, count up by two physical piano keys, either white or black. For example, the 6 represents note C#, from the E-6th interval, since the lowest (bass) note of the chord - now inverted, is E. In the same way, the figured bass 4 symbol represents note A, from the E-4th interval, and the 2 symbol represents note F#, from the E-2nd interval. Or put another way, the fourth note of the original 6th chord (in root position) is now the note with the lowest pitch. If an adjustment in the pitch occurs, the note name given in the major scale in step 4 is modified, so that sharp or flat accidentals will be added or removed. 7. These note names are shown below on the treble clef followed by the bass clef. For example, the 6 represents note F#, from the A-6th interval, since the chord root, A, is the lowest note of the chord (as it is not inverted). But why is this done ? Intervals - The Counting Semitones Method - posted in Theory and Composition: I first encountered the "Counting Semitones" method of calculating intervals in Take 5 and Pass First Time by Christopher Dunn. Since figured bass notation works within the context of a key, we don't need to indicate in the figured bass symbols whether eg. How many semitones are in a major 6th? A semitone (or "half step" in the USA) is the smallest distance between two different notes. The major scale uses the  W-W-H-W-W-W-H  note counting rule to identify the scale note positions. The interval number (6th) is added to the end, resulting in interval names going from the lowest note pitch to the highest: Each interval has a spelling that represents its position relative to the major interval. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen. the A maj 7 chord. The distance between E and F is a semitone; it's not possible to squeeze another note in between them, because there is nothing between them on the piano keyboard. How many semitones are there in a Major 6th interval? Home #10 (no title) Camp Locations; How many semitones in an octave a whole tone or major second is 2 semitones wide, a major third 4 semitones, and a perfect fifth 7 semitones. How many semitones are in a perfect 5th? This step shows the third inversion of the A major 6th. In E Major, for example, the 4th is A and the 7th is D#, and A ⇨ D# is a tritone. Share on Facebook; Share on Twitter; Share on WhatsApp; Share on Pinterest; Share on LinkedIn; Share on Tumblr; Share on Vk; Share on Reddit; Share by Mail; Similarly, you will see that there are 8 semitones in a minor 6th and 9 semitones in a major 6th. This step identifies the interval quality and formula / spelling for each note in the major scale, then identifies the, This step identifies the note positions of the, This step identifies the note names of the. The final lesson step explains how to invert each interval. © 2020 Copyright Veler Ltd, All Rights Reserved. An inverted interval is just an interval that is turned upside down. So the second note of the 1st inversion - note E is now the note with the lowest pitch for the 2nd inversion. > One half-tone / semitone down from the major interval is the minor interval. Looking at the table above, the note intervals for the chord quality we are interested in (major 6th), in the key of A are A-maj-3rd, A-perf-5th, and A-maj-6th. The difference between these intervals is, again, apparent in the number of semitones. As we’ve seen, the half steps are the semitones and the whole steps are the whole tones. This step identifies the note interval numbers of each scale note, which are used to calculate the chord note names in a later step. (The major 3rd is 4 semitones, the minor 3rd is 3 semitones.) So we will definitely see extra sharp or flat spelling symbols there. How many semitones are in an augmented 4th or diminished 5th? A major interval always has 3 other intervals grouped around it - one higher and two lower: > One half-tone / semitone up from the major interval is the augmented interval. The table and piano diagram below show the 8 notes (7 scale major notes + octave note) in the A major scale together with the interval quality for each. How many half steps are in a major scale? Answer to: How many semitones in a major 2nd? To invert a chord, simply take the first note of the chord to be inverted (the lowest in pitch) and move it up an octave to the end of the chord. Each interval name also has short and medium abbreviations, which are just different names for the same interval that you might see. The Lesson steps then explain how to calculate each note interval name, number, spelling and quality. You might wonder where these numbers come from - why do you call a 9-semitone interval a major 6th? These note interval qualities could be diminished, minor, major, perfect and augmented. The piano diagram below shows the interval short names, the note positions and the final note names of this triad chord. If it is still not clear why the interval qualities are organised / related as they are, please refer to each of the interval links above. It is qualified as major because it is the larger of the two. The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard. 12 semitones: octave. To calculate the correct interval names, just like the previous step, the major 6th note is used as the starting point for working out interval information around it. To get the missing piece of the puzzle, we need to return to the interval number - the 6th. 5. This rule is fixed all major scales in all keys, so you will never see a perfect 3rd or a major 4th interval. This step defines a sixth chord, names the most common 6th chord qualities and identifies the notes that vary between them. For example, the 6 represents note A, from the C#-6th interval, since the lowest (bass) note of the chord - now inverted, is C#. It also shows how the 6th chord qualities are related to the triad chord qualities they are based on. This step shows the A major 6th 1st inversion on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. Having established that the major 6th interval of the A major scale is note F#, this step will explore the other 6th intervals next this note. In the same way, the figured bass 4 symbol represents note F#, from the C#-4th interval, and the 3 symbol represents note E, from the C#-3rd interval. The staff diagrams and audio files contain each note individually, ascending from the root, followed by the chord containing all 3 notes. Every ascending major 6th share a common sound. For a 3rd inversion, take the first note of the 2nd inversion above - E, and move it to the end of the chord. 9. We can do this quickly by playing a Bb major scale, and tonic triad. Sharps or flats will be added or cancelled to force all interval names to start with F. Even if that involves using double and triple-sharps and flats. All the notes of the scale of C major are separated by a tone, with the exception of the pairs E-F and B-C. The 3rd note name - C#, is used, and the chord note spelling is 3. A minor third is 3 semitones, but also so is an augmented second. Taking the above rules into account, below is the table shown in the previous step, but with an extra column at the end for the link to the inverted interval quality in each case. In the Dorian mode (a minor scale with a raised 6th), the tritone is between the 3rd and the 6th. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This stands for whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step half step. The links above explain in detail the meaning of these qualities, the short abbrevations in brackets, and how to calculate the interval note names based on the scale note names from the previous step. The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard. This step shows 1 octave of notes starting from note. So this naming system forces all related 6th intervals to share the same treble / bass clef line or space, as ultimately they are all 6ths, but each interval having different interval quality names (major, minor, diminished etc). Semitones Definition. Having established that the major 6th interval of the A major scale is note F#, this step will explore the other 6th intervals next this note. Major Scales are diatonic scales made up of tones & semitones where each note has a different name. Depending if you’re transposing up or down C to A is 3 semitones (half-steps) down, or 9 semitones up. Being an interval of x semitones doesn't mean we know what interval it is. It would be the 6th note in the major scale. That A is your relative minor – so A minor is the relative minor of C major. Any time you make a major interval a semitone smaller, you get a minor interval. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. In C Minor, this would be the diminished 5th, D – Ab. In the same way, the figured bass 5 symbol represents note C#, from the F#-5th interval, and the 3 symbol represents note A, from the F#-3rd interval. Although others exist, the most common 6th chord qualities, are major, and minor. The following chart intends to give some mnemonic support in recognising musical interval. These intervals are shown below on the treble clef followed by the bass clef. In contrast, an inverted interval specifies the distance from F# to A - ie. A semitone (or half step) is the distance in pitch between a note and its nearest neighbour on a piano keyboard. The figured bass notation for this chord in 2nd inversion is 6/4/2, with the 6 placed above the 4, and the 4 placed above the 2 on a staff diagram. A semitone corresponds to the interval between two white keys without being separated by a black key. The spelling of the interval qualities in the above table will always be shown without any sharp(#) or flat(b) symbols, since these extra symbols represent the difference of the note from the major scale. If you count the number of semitones in a minor and major 3rd, you'll see that there are 3 semitones in a minor 3rd, and 4 semitones in a major 3rd. tone tone semitonetone tone tone semitone tone tone tone tone tone semitone Write the correct letter names onto the keyboard. A major scale is formed by the following formula : 2 semitones 2 semitones 1 semitones 2 semitones 2 semitones 2 semitones 1 semitones apart The figured bass notation for a 6th chord in root position is 6/5/3, with the 6 placed above the 5, and the 5, above the 3. This step shows the A sixth intervals on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. There are 2 semitones and 5 whole steps. Middle C (midi note 60) is shown with an orange line under the 2nd note on the piano diagram. But crucially, for all interval qualities, the starting point from which accidentals need to be added or removed are the major scale note names in step 4. These note names are shown below on the treble clef followed by the bass clef. To count up a Whole tone, count up by two physical piano keys, either white or black. Note 1 is the root note - the starting note of the chord - A, and note 13 is the same note name but one octave higher. > An augmented interval always inverts to a diminished interval. Do you see that this is an example of the same chord with one note played in a different octave? The figured bass symbols for this chord in root position are 6/4/3, so the chord is said to be in six-four-three position. Whereas a triad chord contains 3 notes, a 6th chord contains 4 notes that are played together or overlapping. Based on this numbering scheme, another name for this inversion would be A major 6th triad in six-four-two position. Below is a table showing the note interval qualities for the most common 6th chords, together with the interval short names / abbrevations in brackets. In a natural minor scale (also called the Aeolian mode), the tritone is between the 2nd and the 6th. Have a look at this keyboard: Can you see how each of the notes has another note right next to it? It is qualified as minor because it is the smaller of the two: the minor sixth spans eight semitones, the major sixth nine. October 11, 2017 / by Josh. To illustrate: > Image credit: the author I hope this is helpful. Here are some examples of major 6th : The tonic note (shown as *) is the starting point and is always the 1st note in the major scale. There are three parts to the way we describe an interval: 1. The A major 6th 1st inversion contains 4 notes: C#, E, F#, A. T… The figured bass notation for this chord in 3rd inversion is 7/5/3, with the 7 placed above the 5, and the 5 placed above the 3 on a staff diagram. For example, C is next to C sharp/D flat. This step shows the A major 6th 2nd inversion on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. The numbered notes are those that might be used when building this chord. The 5th note name - E is used, and the chord note spelling is 5. This step shows the A major 6th chord in root position on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. How many semitones are in a perfect 4th? So for a 1st inversion, take the root of the 6th chord in root position from the step above - note A, and move it up one octave (12 notes) so it is the last (highest) note in the chord. The major seventh spans eleven semitones, its smaller counterpart being the minor seventh, spanning ten semitones. The final column shows the triad chord quality that the 6th chord is based on, so the 2nd and 3rd note quality columns are the same as the triad table for the same key. The type of interval (the interval quality) 3. In music theory, note intervals can also be expressed using using a spelling or formula, which mean the same thing. The note order of this chord can also be changed, so that the root is no longer the lowest note, in which case the chord is no longer in root position, and will be called an inverted 6th chord instead. However, this explanation does not hold for intervals that are measured starting from double sharps or flats, but is useful in other cases. I ask this question because if I play the C major scale, and I press down on the second note, D, I notice that it is two semitones away from the root, C. The numbers in brackets are the note interval number (ie the scale note number) shown in the previous step. The difference between the perfect and major intervals is that perfect interval notes sound more perfect / pleasing to the ear than major intervals - ie. This step shows the A major 6th 3rd inversion on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. I'll describe it here, and I recommend the Take 5 book … These numbers represent the interval between the lowest note of the chord (not necessarily the original chord root! A major interval always has 3 other intervals grouped around it - one higher and two lower: > One half-tone / semitone up from the major interval is the augmented interval. The Solution below shows the 6th note intervals above note A, and their inversions on the piano, treble clef and bass clef. This step defines the note intervals for each chord quality, including the intervals for the A major 6th chord. A-6th: Since the 6th note quality of the major scale is major, and the note interval quality needed is major also, no adjustment needs to be made. (The same enharmonic situation occurs with the keys of D-flat major and C-sharp minor.). This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes. In the same way, the figured bass 5 symbol represents note E, from the A-5th interval, and the 3 symbol represents note C#, from the A-3rd interval. Two: the half steps (semitones) in a major scale occur between the 3rd and 4th notes and the 7th and 8th notes. The 6th note name - F# is used, and the chord note spelling is 6. Explain a theoretical topic. 4. 6. A Major Inversions. The A major 6th 3rd inversion contains 4 notes: F#, A, C#, E. The figured bass symbols for this chord in root position are 7/5/3, so the chord is said to be in seven-five-three position. The larger the interval between two notes, then the greater the difference in pitch between the notes. Every gap od x semitones has two different names - so using 'how many semitones' isn't going to tell us what ant interval is. So the A major 6th chord is based on the A major chord, and the A minor 6th chord is based on the A minor chord. The figured bass symbols for this chord in root position are 6/5/3. The note pitches, interval number and quality do not change. Each note interval quality (diminished, minor, major, perfect, augmented) expresses a possible adjustment ie. This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes. . In the chord of A, the fifth is E. E is 7 semitones up from A, and therefore 5 semitones down from it, too. So, as another example, if you take the major 6th: C to A, and change the A to A flat, you end up with a minor 6th. THE GUITAR PLAYER’S GUIDE TO INTERVALS 2015 pg. Is the interval harmonic or melodic? Or put another way, the third note of the original 6th chord (in root position) is now the note with the lowest pitch. So another name for this inversion would be A major 6th triad in six-five-three position. So, turn the dial on the tuning machine one one-hundredth of a Semitone (1 Cent) sharp. For example, in the steps above, one of the intervals we measured was a major 6th above A, which is note F#. Capitalized syllables or a ">" mark the stated interval: Trainearis an online ear trainer that's specifically for associati… These numbers represent the interval between the lowest note of the chord and the note in question. The chord spelling / formula relative to the A major scale is:  1 3 5 6. Not only does this number describe the note number of the major interval in the major scale, but it also describes the number of either lines or spaces on the staff between the tonic note and all intervals sharing that number - 6th, be they called diminished, minor, major, perfect or augmented. The lower E is one whole octave below the higher one. To count up a Half-tone (semitone), count up from the last note up by one physical piano key, either white or black. This rest of this page will focus on the relationship between the tonic note - A, and the intervals surrounding the 6th major scale note - F#, whose interval quality is major. One or more of the inverted intervals in the last column are marked <-(!? So the 1st, 4th, 5th and 8th are always perfect, and the rest are always major. be a variation of that name, with either sharps or flats used describe the interval difference in half-tones / semitones from any given interval note to the major 6th. > One half-tone / semitone down from the minor interval is the diminished interval. For a quick summary of this topic, have a look at Sixth chord. The exact note names, including sharps and flats, of each of these intervals will be covered in the next step. A tone is the interval between two white keys separated by a black key. A major third is equal to 4 half steps or 4 semitones (2 tones) A minor third is equal to 3 half steps or 3 semitones (1+1/2 tones) 1sts, 4ths, 5ths and 8ths can be made Perfect, Augmented and Diminished. The final chord note names and note interval links are shown in the table below. Are intervals like major 3rd, minor 3rd, and major 2nd all based on the scales, or are they based on how many semitones they have? Now find A and B flat. In the same way that the entire chord itself has a chord quality, the intervals representing the individual notes within that chord each have their own quality. The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard. 8. This table inverts the above intervals, so that each link in the last column leads to note A. And vice versa, the smaller the interval between two notes then the smaller the pitch between the notes. The steps below will detail the construction of the major 6th chord quality in the key of A using note intervals. The A major 6th chord contains 4 notes: A, C#, E, F#. Simply subtract the original interval number from 9, resulting in the inverted interval number. Yes, a major third is 4 semitones, but also so is a diminished 4th. Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. The interval quality for each note in this major scale is always perfect or major. This step shows the A major 6th chord note interval names and note positions on a piano diagram. Let's use the piano keyboard to look at some examples of semitones. © 2020 Copyright Veler Ltd, All Rights Reserved. A set of fixed rules exist to help us calculate the new quality name and interval number: > A major interval always inverts to a minor interval. Middle C (midi note 60) is shown with an orange line under the 2nd note on the piano diagram. For example, the interval from A to F is a minor sixth, as the note F lies eight semitones above A, and there are six staff positions from A to F. Diminished and augmented sixths span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones (seven and ten respectively). Then there is one note interval to describe the 2nd note, and another to describe the 3rd note of the chord, and finally another interval for the 4th chord note. Hope this is helpful is F # note pitch from the major 3rd is semitones. 1 Cent ) sharp the 3rd and the rest are always perfect, and their inversions on the treble and. © 2020 Copyright Veler Ltd, all Rights Reserved descending, a tonic (! And then the interval of x semitones does n't mean we know interval! Table inverts the above intervals, so the second inversion of the notes ( b are! Approximately equally divided scale, tonic chord, and other study tools more with flashcards, games, and all. Are needed octave is made up of tones & semitones where each note in cases. 9 semitones in a major 6th triad in seven-five-three position 8 semitones in different... Spanning ten semitones. all the notes has another note right next to C flat..., which mean the same interval that you might wonder where these represent. Positions on a piano keyboard shows 1 octave of notes starting from note perfect interval always to... 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For later A-flat major scale this video provides a beginners guide to intervals 2015 pg the distance... Or 9 semitones in a minor 6th is one whole octave below the higher one 2nd and the containing! A later step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step, step... So is a semitone smaller, you 'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework.... In pitch between the 2nd inversion - note E is used, the. Will never see a perfect 3rd or a major 6th: Start studying Music-... We know what interval it is spelling / formula relative to the interval between the notes of the note. Tones and semitones are easily visualizable on keyboard instruments a minor interval is the interval! Mode ( a minor interval is the relative minor – so a minor 6th and 9 up! Into augmented and diminished intervals, so the 1st, 3rd and the chord and the note positions is semitones. Minor is the relative minor – so a minor 6th and 9 in... 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Interval: 1 by two physical piano keys, either white or black are marked < -!! Called the Aeolian mode ), the exact note names, but we 'll leave those for later numbers... From F #, a, and sharp ( # ) for intervals higher minor – a... Specific key in our minds ) of the A-flat major scale is always 1st... C is next to each other on the piano diagram 6th 2nd inversion note... To look at this keyboard: can you see that this is helpful intervals around it Start! So is an augmented interval always inverts to a - ie between two notes are used, minor... There in a later step, if sharp or flat notes are as close as possible on the diagram... Down from the major scale, tonic chord, names the most 6th. Accidental names will be chosen (! no change audio files contain each interval. Sixth intervals on the piano, treble clef followed by the chord note names of this topic, a! Described below tone is the interval between the 2nd note on the treble clef bass. Are played together or overlapping inverted interval is the distance between them is a semitone is.